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Description of the operating principle of the plasma boiler

 

Engaging of hypotheses of passing of any nuclear reactions in a cavitational bubble at those capacities and energies at which traditional vortex heatgenerators function, are for certain insolvent. Excess of a background radiation is higher natural near the working unit is not revealed. Even if to allow passing yet not of known nuclear reactions, identification of that, "general" direction of increase of effectiveness of transformation of electric energy in thermal, it is bound to inexact comprehension of processes which happen in vortex heat heaters. 

 

The phenomenon of sonoluminescence cavitation

Depending on specific conditions, the temperature of the luminous section with sonoluminescence after the passage of the discharge between the walls of bubble composes, possibly, 2000º-5000º С. In case of cavitation in the pure water the maximum intensity of sonoluminescence occurs to the temperature of 40ºС. With an increase in the temperature the luminous  intensity of liquid decreases and respectively decreases the temperature in the cavitation bubble.  Assuming the possibility of participating in the process of generating excess heat of atomic hydrogen, the observable variable conversion factor 1-1, 4-1, 6 gets acceptable explanation. The whole idea of cavitation of the heat generator is correct, but getting the temperature up to 3000°С in a small amount of the cavitation bubble in such exotic way is not justified. Of course, the volume occupied by liquid cavitation bubbles is great, but actually only to the temperature of 40°С (in case of application as a working body of water) heating goes with a higher coefficient, and after goes direct conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy flow. When the temperature in the bubble 2000-5000°С part containing the vapor is decomposed into component gases and, apparently, hydrogen is ionized. But when these temperatures only part (10-15%) molecular hydrogen enters the ionized state

 

A large amount of energy released during the formation of the hydrogen molecule, explains its stability under normal conditions. However, it also suggests the possibility of thermal dissociation (decomposition when heated) molecules H2, if to tell her a sufficient amount of heat. Experience shows that significant thermal dissociation of hydrogen starts at about 2000 °C and occurs the more, the higher the temperature. Conversely, at lower temperatures the atoms will again unite into molecules. 

 

It is obvious that expended energy (dissociation energy) must be recovered by the energy released in the recombination of hydrogen atoms introduced into the reaction substance. Therefore, it can be expected that the reaction of hydrogen, which gives extra warmth, will not proceed spontaneously. In the case of interaction of substances with atomic hydrogen such the cost of energy for dissociation is not required.

 

 

Obtaining the high temperatures on the electrode material

 

 A prototype of the plasma generator     

In this regard, you should pay attention to the process, which was based on the discovery of the dissociation and recombination of atomic hydrogen, made by Irving Langmuir in 1912. After that, Langmuir invented welding atomic hydrogen. In this process the "normal" diatomic hydrogen is passed through an electric arc, which decompose it into atomic hydrogen. Atomic hydrogen recombines on the surface of the (processed) metal, creating a very high temperature. By 1963 this welding  process was already considered obsolete.

The concept of more heat based on the fact that the total power in watts required to conduct welding atomic hydrogen, in fact less than the power required to perform the same work conventional welding transformer. Some part of this reduction in consumption can be attributed to the greater concentration of heat. It is unlikely that it is enough for a significant reduction of electrical energy. In the end, the usual welding transformer is also slightly dissipates heat. The same kind of reduction in electricity consumption observed in similar devices for plasma welding.

If during the process of generating additional heat responsible atomic hydrogen, it is possible more simple and convenient way to obtain it than in the cavitation units.

Atomic hydrogen is convenient to obtain the effect on ordinary hydrogen electric discharge. The implementation of this method was achieved by plasma electrolysis of aqueous solutions. The experiments showed that after the filing of the electrodes of a voltage above 300 Volts tungsten electrode (-) is melted and boiled. The boiling point of tungsten 5900 degrees. With and this suggests that the allocation of some portion of molecular hydrogen at the cathode passes through the stage of the atomic state. And as we saw above, the recombination of hydrogen in a molecule is accompanied by excessive dissipation.  But at this temperature (5900º C) boiling of the electrode will cause damage to the unit, so you have to reduce the voltage at the electrodes and to "stick" in the area of temperatures up to 2000º C. But at this temperature only a small (10-15%) part of hydrogen passes through the stage of ionization-recombination. Accordingly, the coefficient of heat that can be obtained in the system remains at the level of 1 to 1.4 and 1.7.

The main change of the conditions of electrolysis is that as an electrode that is in contact with the electrolyte, is plasma. Here you have three options.  As an electrode can act as a plasma cathode plasma anode and case their joint burning in one volume. Observed as in conventional electrolysis, the allocation of detonating gas, but not described by Faraday's law. The output current of oxygen and hydrogen observed in the discharges under all conditions is much larger than unity. For heat generation is also observed anomaly. At the consumption of electric energy of 1 kWh on plasma electrolysis, the output of thermal energy in the case of the cathode plasma to 1.5 kW/h, provided the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen and their use of the energy of combustion for heating the electrolyte.

 

Obviously, the nature of the anomalous dissipation is that during plasma electrolysis of a possible course of an electrochemical reaction in which hydrogen and oxygen passes through the stage of the atomic state and then the gases are connected in the molecule with the release of additional energy. It is believed that under normal electrolysis, the ratio between the nested and energy obtained from the combustion of decomposition products, as you know is equal to 1 / 1. This occurs in the case of an allotment of molecular oxygen and hydrogen. The energy of combustion of these gases will emit the same energy that was used for the decomposition of the electrolyte into hydrogen and oxygen. This ratio is determined by the basic equation:

 

 

where to 241.6 kJ/mol  is the energy of combustion of hydrogen and oxygen and turn them into water vapor and to 43.9 kJ/mol  energy of condensation of water vapour to the liquid state.

 

If the purpose of the hydrogen in the plasma to go through the stage of separation in atomic form, when connected in the molecule is highlighted energy:

 

 

This energy and there is an increase to heat emitted in the experiment at the level 1 / 1,4-1,6.

 

In the case of combustion of the anode plasma and oxygen evolution, it is necessary to assume that the reaction of a compound of oxygen in the molecule with the release of energy:

 

 

This energy and there is an increase to heat emitted in the experiment at the level 1 / 1,4-1,6.

 

In the case of combustion of the anode plasma and oxygen evolution, it is necessary to assume that the reaction of a compound of oxygen in the molecule with the release of energy:

 

 

As you can see by plasma electrolysis of heat energy over a nested to a maximum of 3 times. The source of this additional energy is the modified conventional electrolysis process, and the classical law in its pure form is not able to describe it, which is confirmed experimentally. Next, carefully apply a common classic formulation that the sum of all energies in a closed system is zero, because the issues affecting the transition of matter from atomic to molecular level, we invade the region of the structure of electronic shells and the system is unlikely to be called closed.

 

A lot of important point in the supply circuit, plasma heating boiler may be the presence of inductance. Electrical inductance has always been a "dark horse". At steady-state sinusoidal current behavior of the inductance is calculated from the known formulas, which satisfactorily describe the practical application. If in an electric circuit flowing non-sinusoidal currents of different shapes and especially in the case of asymmetry in amplitude and time, the well-known formula to calculate the inductance, can be used with great caution.

 

 

 

There are known the transients in electric machines, which contain inductance, when closing and opening an electric circuit. This occurs when overvoltage and inrush current that exceeds the nominal value of 8-10 times, the default is usually blamed on the source of electrical power, to which is connected an electric machine. If you imagine plasma period as a current interrupter, it is possible that the transition process in inductance is not over yet, and the next transition is superimposed on top of one another. In this case, probably lies the anomaly of excess energy in electrical circuits that contain inductors. Emerging reactive power in the circuit is, as written in the textbooks of electrical engineering, exchange of energy between the generator and the inductance.

 

Here the big role is played by the current frequency and the ratio L / ROM. (where L - is the inductance, ROM - ohmic resistance of the wire). The third factor is the strength of the magnetizing current flowing in the inductance and the mass of the magnetic circuit.

 

              One of the basic circuits of the plasma-chemical generator of heat.

 

 

 

 

Plasma generator consists of a housing of the working chamber - 1, a pointed electrode - 2, dielectric resistant insulation - 3, the circulation pump - 5, the inductor - 6, the heat exchanger - 7, the washer tank -- 8, lazonamodelos - 9, the separator - 10, the working chamber of the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen - 11 and the device for burning a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen - 13.

 

 

 

Plasma chemical generator operates as follows.

They organize the direction of flow of the electrolyte circulation pump 14 5. When applying electrical current to the electrodes 2 combustion area formed anode and cathode Plasmas 4. This is an intense heat and electrolyte decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen. The formed gas bubbles are entrained by the flow of electrolyte 14 of the working chamber 1 and fed to the washing tank 8, and then pass into the heat exchanger 7. After exiting the heat exchanger in the gas separator 10, the gas bubbles rise upward buoyant force across the area of lazonamodelos 9 and collected in a sealed air cavity 11. The accumulation of combustible gas in the cavity 11, the electrolyte level 12 in hasanalili 9 decreases. Device 13 is the burning of the combustible mixture with the release of heat energy, which is transferred to the corps of lazonamodelos 9 and the washer tank 8. The electrolyte level 12 returns to the previous level and the cycle repeats. 

The electrolyte after passing through the heat exchanger 7 gives heat accumulated and cooled passes the internal cavity of the inductance 6, which receives additional heating. Further, the electrolyte after the gas liberation enters the circulation pump 5 and is fed into the working chamber 1.

The system is sealed and does not require the addition of electrolyte, because the decomposition of the electrolyte into its component gases may decline the liquid electrolyte, and in the recombination in the cavity 11 the same amount of decomposed electrolyte is returned to the system.

 

 

 

                                                                                                               Laboratory of Experimental Physics

                                                                                                                                   Ukraine, Zaporozhye

                                                                                                                     Manager:   Hrishchjanovich A. 

 

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