Thursday 23 May 2019
Log in Register

Login to your account

Username
Password *
Remember Me

Create an account

Fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required.
Name
Username
Password *
Verify password *
Email *
Verify email *

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
  • 11

Mechanism to get the additional energy

 

About the nature of thermal anomalies at electrolysis of light water

(Reversible hydrogen-neutron cycle)

Sidorov B. A., Nevessky N. E.

Thermal anomalies with the electrolysis of light water are discussed and presented the hypothesis that the excess energy here comes not from nuclear processes, but from the deformed electron shells of hydrogen atoms.

In connection with this the classical relativistic atom model of hydrogen it is investigated, the orbit of electron is determined and relativistic corrections to its mass are located. Special attention is given to the limiting case “small hydrogen”, when electron flies on the low-level flight above the very surface of proton. It is shown that the mass of electron in this case grows (because of the enormous speed) ~ 2.5, and the summary mass of entire system practically coincides with the mass of neutron. Thus, “small hydrogen” completely can be considered as the model of neutron. Are discussed the problems, connected with the spin and the magnetic moment of neutron. The energy relationships, which characterize the process of the displacement of hydrogen atom into the neutron and of the reverse process, are investigated:  - disintegration. Idea about the possibility of the locked hydrogen-- neutron cycle for the continuous extraction of excess energy from the sub-quantum area is advanced.

Thermal anomalies with the electrolysis of water were registered by Fleishman and Pons. Since electrolysis underwent the heavy water, and also because explicit evidence of nuclear transformations were revealed besides thermal anomalies in the electrolytic cell, the reason for phenomenon named cold nuclear fusion. However, thermal anomalies (and the associating them radiation), as it was explained more lately, were observed also with the electrolysis of light water. Electrolysis was conducted either with the use of special electrodes - from nickel or palladium with the strongly developed surface or with the nontraditional regimes (alternating current, high voltages, the discharge in the water). And it does ask itself, what is to be done in this case? But to consider the reason for thermal anomalies as before certain nuclear processes or to understand under the reason something another, causing both excess heat- and nuclear transformations? From where and because of what nevertheless into the system does enter additional energy?

The reliable and invariably repetitive exceeding on the heat was discovered with the passage of alternating and direct current through the distilled water. Were used graphite electrodes and is working stress - on the order 400 v. Both on the variable and on the direct current exceeding on the heat composed about 30% with respect to the control measurement.   

     

The scheme of measuring unit is depicted to fig.1.  

 Here:

  1. LATR the step-up transformer.
  2. Wattmeter
  3. Rectifying bridge (it is established only in the case of work on direct current). 
  4. Electrolytic cell (calorimetric). 

 

The statistics was produced: 10 control measurements even 10 workers, and were calculated average result.

For decreasing the heat losses during the calorimetric measurement initial temperature was equal to the room one. Temperature was measured with the aid of the thermocouple digital thermometer with the accuracy of 0.10S. 

     Circuit parameters:  

  • electrode voltage in operating conditions: 400 v,

  • power on the wattmeter: 15 w, 

  • the volume of water - 180 ml,

  • exposure - 120 s. 

In the control measurements the water was heated by usual resistor. Effective resistance for the control measurements: 360 ohms, 2 W. Wattmeter - electrodynamics, the class of the precision: 0.2.    

For the clarity is given the table of measurements in the case of alternating current. In it the values of increases in the temperature are indicated   for the blank experiment (when water is heated by the effective resistance, submerged in the calorimeter, by containing 180 ml of the distilled water, during 120 seconds with the power of heating (on the wattmeter) 15 watts) and for operating conditions with the graphite electrodes with the same power, exposure and the volume of water.

The initial temperature of water for all measurements was identical: to the equal temperature of air in the accommodation

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

 

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.2

2.1

2.2

2.2

2.2

 

2.9

2.9

2.8

3.0

2.8

2.9

2.8

2.8

2.9

2.9

exceeding of the heat in %

31.8

31.8

33.3

36.4

27.3

31.8

33.3

27.3

31.8

31.8

 

Average exceeding on the heat in operating conditions in comparison with the control room composed 31.7%.     

This experience is easily to repeat and to ascertain that the exceeding on the heat actually occurs. Measurements on the direct current lead to the analogous result. Furthermore, were conducted measurements on alternating current into the 5%- ohm the solution of na2CO3. Effect completely was absent; heat emission was equal to control room. 

The results of experiments are fundamentally new. They show that additional heat emission it is possible to obtain, using light water. Concerning the source of additional heat, thus it is far unknown.

To consider that source is nuclear transformation, here is hardly justified. Therefore to the role of the reason, which causes anomalous heat emission, idea about the latent energy is advanced the deformed electron shells. 

So that the reasoning about the electron orbits would appear correct, is used the ideology of the information theory of electricity (ITE, [1]), which makes it possible to combine classical and quantum ideas. Information approach goes back to the ideas de Broglie about the fact that the electron is the corpuscle (but not wave), whose behavior is corrected by it the generated “stationary wave”, which fulfills control function. On to de Broglie there is no “wave-particle duality”, but are two independent essences - corpuscle and wave, that are located in the close interrelation with each other [2]. This view on the thing makes it possible to discuss about the electron orbits, without losing in this case wave manifestations in the behavior of electrons.

Fig. 2

The deformation of electron orbits in hydrogen atom was examined by Sommerfield [3]. If the electron, which moves along the circular (1-oy Bohr) orbit, returns in view of any disturbance the part of its kinetic energy, then its orbit is deformed. In the first approximation, it is converted into the ellipsis with the proton in the focus. In the following approximation, which considers a change in the mass of electron with speed, we will be to have the ellipsis continuously  by the being displaced perihelion or t/n “the rosette of Sommerfield” (fig.2).  Equation for finding the orbit takes the form: 

where . This is - the beautiful and accurately decided task about the motion in the central field. Orbit shape is given by the expression:                                                                                

 

 where p - «the parameter»ε - eccentricity , и k - "розеточность" - are expressed as the energy Е and the moment of momentum М of the electron:

 



, ,

When k < 1,  then orbit displaces on the motion of electron motion. With the small deformations the displacement comprises for the revolution [α≈1/137 - fine structure constant], which in the conversion to the wavelength of the corresponding emission gives: λ= 1,7 мм. This emission can in principle accompany electrolysis and cavitations’, and there is sense to attempt it to register.   

It is important that energy of this deformed atom is less than the initial, so that the process of the deformation of electron orbit - exothermic. Orbit electron before leaving in socket orbit must return into outside the part of its kinetic energy in 13,6 eV. This - no longer little and it can explain the observed thermal anomalies.

It is possible to continue reasoning and to further and examine the following (second) deformation of electron orbit, which converts it again into the circular, but the extremely small, compressed, located above the very surface of proton. This will be so-called “small hydrogen”. 

The electron velocity in this situation reaches sub-light values. Its mass respectively noticeably grows, and entire system, therefore, becomes more heavily. It is not difficult to estimate how heavier. Equalizing the centrifugal force of Coulomb, we will obtain the equation:                                                      

With a known radius - this is equation for the speed. If we for a radius of orbit in “small hydrogen” take a Compton radius of the proton: 

cm, then we will obtain:  

From here let us find: Thus, the mass of electron grows into more than two and one-half of times and it becomes equal:  Мew. But the difference of the masses of neutron and proton is equal according to reference data: Мew. “Small hydrogen”, thus clearly it pretends to the role of neutron. Agreement in the mass occurs almost 100%! 

Thought about the fact that the neutron is composite particle - system from the proton and the electron was the first and natural, since with disintegration from the nucleus departed precisely the electrons. It intensively was discussed at the dawn of the formation of nuclear physics (see, for example [4]). Basic difficulty for the model of composite neutron consisted in the balance of spins and magnetic moments.   Actually, in proton, electron and neutron - identical spins:  However, magnetic moments of proton and neutron - order of nuclear, i.e., three orders it is less than the magnetic moment of free electron. Mote, and also Bohr noted that in the nucleus the electrons are by no means free and under the extreme conditions they are not completely obligated to behave as always. Nuclear electrons can “undergo a change in the individuality”, for example, to cease to revolve, that also would explain the incomprehensible disappearance of magnetic moment into the entire Bohr’s magnetron.   

Recently this idea obtained the confirmation: in Internet there was the communication that with the aid of the special technology was possible to stop the rotation even free electron. Electron in this case was decomposed into two particles - “colon” (electron without the spin) and “spin on” - the particle, analogous to neutrino and which takes to itself entire angular momentum. 

In the course of time, nevertheless, the idea about “small hydrogen” was left, and idea about the neutron was affirmed as about not the composite, but truly elementary particle. The fact that the mass of small hydrogen, is as shown higher, practically coincides with the mass of neutron, it would serve as the strong argument in favor of the revival of this idea. 

“Small hydrogen” can appear as a result a number of the sequential deformations of electron orbits. Must, thus, exist the transitional forms between usual hydrogen and that maximally convoluted, i.e., by neutron. These transitional forms by themselves are completely interesting, since they can possess special intermediate properties.

They are neutral and, similar to neutrons, must, apparently, possess the large penetrating power and, in particular, by the ability closely to approach the atomic nuclei and to initiate nuclear processes. At the same time, they as whole can possess the large magnetic moment (~ electronic) and thus to have the noticeable magnetic properties (for example, to stay by ferromagnetic screens).

With their formation the energy is separated: this is exothermic process. In the extreme case the transformations of the usual atom of hydrogen - into small hydrogen energy excess comprises:

Мew

This is the enormous energy, it will be sufficient also with the interest in order to ensure all conceivable thermal exceeding [When turning hydrogen in a neutron kinetic energy of an electron strongly increases, but a total energy: (including the potential energy which also is also increasing, but entering with a minus sign), nevertheless decreases]. 

But the matter with this does not end. On the contrary, further begins the most interesting.

Further the restoration of the deformed atoms of hydrogen must occur to the initial form. This is necessary to complete the cycle.

The maximally convoluted atom of hydrogen - the very same neutron  experiences b - decay . This is the spontaneous (spontaneous) process, which goes against the Le Chatelier principle, i.e., to the side of the increase (but not decrease) in the total energy. It occurs in view of some, to us unknown processes and it appears mysterious.

For its explanation (are more precise, the descriptions of that how it occurs) it is possible to advance one general idea, named “the principle of the flickering charge”. To base it is possible only within the framework the information theory of electricity. According to ITE, the interaction of the charged particles is a complex multistage process. It begins from the exchange of information, are included its estimation and agreement with the internal goal-setting installations and already after entire this - it completes by action. Between cause and effect (call and response) here always is a time lag and for the elongation of this delay are possible (planned and no) the failures of every kind.

Action with this view on the thing is produced independently, field is information, and “charge itself” treats as the measure of the ability to create or to receive field. That that the charge can in this case “twinkle”, i.e., to be included and to be turned off sometimes or somehow, completely is justified. The consequences of similar twinkling can be catastrophic and lead to the disintegration.

During the disconnection of the charge of the proton (or that equivalently according to the result, with the temporary loss by the electron of the ability to receive the field of proton) electron is torn away from the away from the orbit and is taken away with the enormous kinetic energy.

This energy comprises:    Mew, i.e., exactly it is equal to maximum energy b- disintegration. If off time is small and electron does not manage completely to be freed, then its energy will be concluded somewhere between zero and 0.78 Mew. Energy spectrum will be continuous, as this is fixed in the experience.   

Why as occurs “twinkling” - a question special and it thus far concern we will not be. It is thus far important that b-decay goes it spontaneously and brings our system to initial state. Cycle thus completes.

This is the hydrogen-- neutron cycle, with the aid of which it is possible, in principle, to create the renewed and powerful energy source. Cycle consists of two stages: A) the displacement of hydrogen atom into neutron and b) (-decay of neutron. It is during the first stage allotted by 0.309 Mew, and on second 0.781 Mew. The total (maximum) energy, which separates in this case comprises: 0.309+0781= 1.09 Mew. And this - per cycle on each atom of hydrogen!

One gram of hydrogen is capable to isolate with this cycle ~ of 1010 George!  Moreover, this energy - renewed! Both at the entrance and at the output we have all the same water. Substance is not expended and does not change, although is given off enormous energy. The actual source of this energy is not water, but thin sub-quantum medium (or: ether, physical vacuum and so forth. - name is not important), that fills intra-atomic spaces and continuously and always utilized by inhabitants of microcosm for their vital activity. 

Prospects, thus, are widest opened! And they are opened slightly because of the information theory of electricity. Any new theory of electricity also unavoidably leads to the preconception of intro nuclear phenomena. To this as are cannot more consonant words classics: “There are no quanta, and there are no nuclear forces. There is the unrecognized electricity”.

 

References:

 

  1. N. E. Nevessky. "Information dynamics".М:, 2001.
  2. Lochak G. “De Broglie’s initial conception of de Broglie waves (The wave-particle dualism).
  3. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordreht, Holland, 1984.
  4. Born M. "Nuclear physics". М.: Mir, 1965.
  5. Atomic nucleus. Collection of reports of the I-st All-Union Nuclear Conference. М.- L. HTTI, 1934.

Our experiments