The passage of exothermic reactions with excessive thermal emission, caused not by chemical reaction, by implementation of hydrogen or deuterium in the metal has long attracted attention of many research laboratories. The cause for this was the observation at the study of metal deuteration systems of the neutron emission and the detection of helium after deuterating. Even with intensive dissolution of zinc in sulfuric acid solution is observed the radiation, which illuminates the x-ray film, that suggests that in addition to chemical processes occur in parallel some high-energy reactions. Sorption (hydrogen absorption) of metals is followed by considerable evolution of heat, caused by passing of exothermic chemical reaction of hydride formation. The amount of the generated heat and the conditions of hydride formation are described in many papers and can be easily found by the reference data in the specialized literature. The reaction of hydrogenation is reversible. If you’ll heat the hydride, it will decompose into metal and hydrogen. By default, guiding by the law of energy conservation, it's safe to assume that how much heat energy we receive in the formation of the hydride, the same heat we must sum up to the sample in order to "restore" the system to its original state. In the first approximation this balance of energies is observed. But some anomalous thermal effects, which are followed by hydrogen absorption of metals, such as Ni, Ti, Fe Ti, open new opportunities of receiving of thermal and then of electric energy, that is similar to the energy obtained in the nuclear power plants. At penetration of atoms of hydrogen or deuterium into the crystal lattice of these metals, there are possibly some nuclear reactions, which are not studied yet. According to the density level of generated heat, this process is comparable to the operation of the reactor on the radioactive fuel. Since 2011 Andrea Rossi has attracted general attention, who despite of the skepticism of mainstream science has shown in the laboratory settings that these "exotic" reactions are carried out without ionizing radiations and they can already be used for producing of thermal energy and for its commercial use.
According to Andrea Rossi’s data the reactor gives out 10 kW/h of thermal power in the form of steam, consuming from a network 600 W/h of electricity, while spending 0,01g hydrogen and 0,10 g nickel on 10 kW/h of produced energy. Rossi claims, that this ratio can be reached to 1 to 25, but this is a critical operating mode of the reactor. The device works as follows. In a metal tube with an electric heater and finely divided nickel powder is given hydrogen under the pressure up to 30 atmospheres. At starting heating up to 350 °C, as the inventors believe, the molecules of hydrogen are divided into atoms which enter the nuclear reaction with nickel. On January 14th, 2011 in one of the Italian plants they held a press conference with the demonstration of the reactor for about fifty invited persons. Among them there were professors from the University of Bologna who weren't connected with the project. They were asked to make sure that the device really worked. After successful tests Andrea Rossi has collected and started the 1MW installation, consisting of 125 separate modules.
After such considerable successRossi was invited to work in the USA, where he continues his working till now. Of course, the main aim pursued by Rossi and his partners in the USA is the production of the electric energy. When the efficiency of the process is 400% and more, we can already speak about the reality of this plan. The operation of the installation at temperature of 350°C does not allow to receive some necessary characteristics for operation of the industrial steam turbine. And since 2012 Andrea Rossi has focused his researches on the study of high-temperature operating mode of the reactor. Andrea Rossi does not disclose details of the internal structure of the reactor, as it is a trade secret. At the present time all rights to this device acquired the American company Industrial Heat, where Rossi leads all research and development activities concerning the reactor. At the present moment there are the low-temperature (E-Cat) and the high-temperature (Hot-Cat) versions of the reactor. The first version is for temperatures of about 250-350°C, and the second one is for temperatures of about 800-1400°C. In March 2013, by the independent experts was published a report about the 32-day run test of Andrea Rossi’s high-temperature device E-cat fully confirmed the unique fuel properties of the reactor are possible on the basis of low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR).
During the 32 days run 1 gram of fuel has obtained 1,5 MW/h of thermal energy, that makes even in nuclear energetic the unprecedented power density of energy release of 2,1 MW/kg.
|The high-temperature ceramic reactor Hot-Cat on testing|
At the first stage of testing, the reactor has been operating without fuel for 23 hours that allowed making calibration measurements. After that the fuel was loaded (Ni + Li (AlH4) weighing about 1 g, having the form of a small powder, and the gradually increasing heat was included. The increase in heating power had lasted until the average temperature of the reactor surface reached 1260°C at the power of 810 W/h consumed by the heater . The operation in this mode has lasted for 10 days.
After that the power was raised to 900 W/h. As a result, within a few minutes the temperature of the reactor has increased to 1400°C. Further work occurred at the electric power of about 900 W/h up to the pre-scheduled term of its turning off (32 days after turning on of the reactor with fuel).
From the report it is visible, that the relation between the input electrical energy, which goes for heating of the reactor, and the output thermal one makes 3, 5-4.
On December 27th, 2014, on the siteE-Cat World (http://www.e-catworld.com/2014/12/27/lugano-confirmed-replication-report-published-of-hot-cat-device-by-russian-researcher-alexander-g-parkhomov/) was published an article about the independent reproduction of Rossi’s high-temperature reactor in Russia. The same article refers to the report of the physicist Parkhomov Alexander Georgievich "Investigation of the high-temperature analogue of Rossi’s heat generator ". In the report the author has presented his version of Rossi’s reactor, the data on its internal structure and the tests. Main conclusion: the reactor really produces more energy than it consumes. The ratio of the produced heat to the consumed energy made 2.58. Moreover, the reactor had been working for about 8 minutes without a supply of electric power, after burning out of the supplying nichrome wire, while producing the thermal power of about 750 W.
|The experimental reactor of A. G. Parkhomov|
For the manufacture of the reactors are used ceramic tubes Al2O3 length of 120 mm, an outer diameter of 10 mm and an inner diameter of 5 mm. The electric heaters are wound around the tube. Inside the tube there is 1g of Powder Ni + 10% Li [Al H4]. The outer surface of the tube contacts thermocouple. The ends of the tube are sealed with the heat-resistant cement. All surface of the reactor is coated with the same cement. Link to the report of Parkhomov A. G. ( http://www.unconv-science.org/pdf/7/parkhomov-ru.pdf)
Our researches in this direction were conducted last two and a half years in Laboratory of Experimental Physics, Zaporozhye and in a private Laboratory in Moscow. Basic efforts were directed on initiation of reactions of hydrogen and the titanium with a help of glow and corona discharge plasma.
It is known, that flowing of electrical discharge through rarefied gas forms numerous charged atoms and molecules. For example, if you pass the discharge through hydrogen, a huge number of charged atoms (protons) and charged molecules are formed. A large number of protons and deuterons can be easily obtained by passing an electric discharge, respectively, using hydrogen and deuterium, but in order to give them greater speed, it is necessary to disperse them in a strong electric field, i.e., voltage is applied in the chamber, in which there is a gas. Rutherford, and then Cockroft and Walton in 1932 for the first time showed, that artificial transmutation of lithium and boron (as a target) can be achieved by bombardment with protons with an accelerating voltage of only 100 000 volts. The processes of transformation of these elements, when bombarded by protons and deuterons, are accompanied by the appearance of helium nuclei, which flies apart in opposite directions with an energy release up to 17 MW for every act of response, which gives us the ratio of 1 to 128, i.e., attachment 1 kilowatt/hour, we get 128 kilowatt/hour. But this method of producing energy has not been used due to the low cross section for the reaction, because from 100 000 accelerated protons or deuterons, only one enters the nucleus of the atom lithium or boron.
From the work, carried out by A. B. Karabut and I. B. Savvatimova in the PSUE “LUCH” (Podolsk, Moscow) follows, that you can also obtain a nuclear reaction with a lower voltage, if you’ll use as a target (cathode) hydrogen metal, particularly titanium. There were investigated the elemental and isotopic compositions of titanium cathode before and after irradiation by ions in glow discharge plasma on the sample that showed excess heat. Irradiation was performed with deuterium ions at the discharge voltage less than 1000 volts, a current of 10-20mA. The obtained thermal effects on titanium cathode, defined as a 10-20% excess output energy over input energy in the sample weighing 0.7 g in the working chamber of the installation of the glow discharge. In experiments with such materials of the cathode as Mo, W, Zr positive thermal effect was not observed.
We have developed several plasma reactors and the study of systems of hydrogen-titanium cathode. Basing on our early experiments, we have noticed that when the electric current is passed through the titanium hydride, the hydrogen begins immediately to stand out from hydride even at temperatures up to 70°C, further heating, the temperature quickly rises to 300-400°C and above, and further desorption of hydrogen. Having conducted additional experiments with the hydride powder in a quartz tube and the supply voltage is 220, 300, 2000 and 7000 Volts DC or AC voltage through the tubular conductors, we observed a spark discharge between the hydride powders and hydrogen by passing an electrical current through the hydride. The main studies were conducted with the aim of selecting the optimal voltage AC or DC, as well as the geometric parameters of the reactor.
Before construction of the laboratory setup for the hydrogen absorption of metal powders ( Ni, Ti, Fe Ti ) in the period from July 26th , 2012 till November 21st, 2012 we have guided numerous data and other research institutions and laboratories, which showed that while hydrogen absorption of metals may appear the anomalous physical phenomena, leading to excessive heat generation. Leaving nuclear diagnostics and expensive equipment for its holding in the side, and using diagnostic nuclear data of other research groups, the main focus of our study, we made the diagnosis of excessive heat dissipation method of kilometer and search basic conditions (pressure, temperature, reaction volume, etc.) to identify redundant energy.
For process research we chose the two-reactor scheme of our design
Existence of the second reactor was attributed to the fact that ready titanium hydride was loaded into it, which when heated to 500-600 degrees emitted pure hydrogen of 99,9% under the pressure up to 10atm. The need for availability of pure hydrogen is essential for the absorption and activation of the tested powders in the first reactor (in the figure it is shown above). A hydrogen cylinderwith a volume of 10 liters and containing technical hydrogen of 1,4 cube meters (chemical pure hydrogen is 10 times more expensive and its purchase is connected with the market deficiency of such kind of cylinders), under the pressure of 150atm, as it turned out later, can also be used at hydrogen absorption of titanium powder, but the activation of the titanium powder at first needs to be made by pure hydrogen with pre-annealing in vacuum at temperatures of 500-600 degrees to destroy the oxide film.
The existence of the helium tank in the studied system allowed checking it for leaks under pressure of connections and seams after its assembly, to blow through the system to remove air for experiments without vacuuming of the reactors.
Thermal locks that looked like ditches with water weren't necessary. The thermal conductivity of the stainless steel 12X18H10 applied by us is very low. Thus, in experiments on the length of the reactor of 500mm and outer diameter of 12mm, if in the center of the length of the reactor the temperature was of 650 degrees, then
at the edges of the reactor the temperature was of 200-250 degrees.
Further, after having tested the sealing rings (aluminum, fluorine plastic) between the flanges and having come to the conclusion, that the tightness of PTFE sealing rings is better, and the thermal conductivity of PTFE is much lower than that one of aluminum, we got a good thermal insulation between the welded flange of the reactor and the flange of the inlet valves. The individual test of PTFE rings showed that the material- fluorine plastic keeps the temperature up to 600 degrees and then its surface is slightly coated with a thin melting film without any deterioration of the physical properties of the whole ring. In all experiments, the temperature of the outer flange at the temperature of the middle (the length of the active portion of the reactor is 100mm) of 650-800 degrees was staying a little bit higher than the room temperature. That’s why there was no necessity to use the long (up to two meters, which was done for security purposes) inlet stainless tubes. It is worth to note, that the inner surface of the flanges must be made with a triangular groove, at least two such as "father-mother" or "father-father". In the first test reactor, this was not done and even using high temperature sealant, there was a leakage of hydrogen at room temperature and pressures up to 5 ATM.
In the photos above there are examples of made flanges with grooves,which showed the excellent result.
On the subject of choosing geometry and material of the reactor. The use of stainless steel is a necessary condition. Because this material has a low permeability for hydrogen even at temperatures up to 1000 deg. C. And to a lesser extent prone to "hydrogen disease" - embrittlement of metals upon hydrogen absorption. The geometry of the reactor selected "more in length than in width and is connected with a low thermal conductivity powders, that hinder the effective heat removal from the energy deposition in the powders. Therefore, the smaller the inner diameter of the reactor, the higher the radial thermal transfer between the working powder and the inner surface of the reactor. It is important, while designing units to rely on high power. Better to design several reactors with a smaller diameter and greater length, and volume than one, but with a large radial distance from the inner layers of the working of powder to the inner surface. This in someway complicates the design and adds connections of shutoff valves. Experiments and experience of creating hydride accumulators of hydrogen show that going above the diameter larger than 20mm is impractical.
For these reasons we have opted for a reactor length 550mm, outer diameter of 12mm and wall thickness of 1,5mm. For the implementation of heat removal at the operating temperature to 600-700 degrees. Since we’ve applied aviation portioned hand pump high pressure (up to 200atm). In each cycle of the pump operation the volume of the pumping fluid is 15,6ml. For heat sink is used copper pipe in diameter of 12mm with PTFE adapter to ensure normal working temperature of hydraulic valves and connecting hoses. We began to construct a radial (pipe in pipe) more effective heat removal, since the first experiments required direct contact of the thermocouple with a working reactor, and the radial heat removal direct contact difficult that could introduce error to the measurement. Further it was really justified. In the first embodiment for the thermal contact between the copper pipe and the reactor we used four thick copper wire for better heat transfer, which are laid between the two heating elements and between the reactor and a copper pipe, all wrapped copper foil with thickness of 0,4mm and collected the so-called "doll" asbestos wrapping tape, that you can see in the pictures.
Next it was collected four way hydraulic system, which allows direct flow of cooling water sequentially through two reactors in parallel and / or separately to cool one of the two reactors. Then we began to experiment.
Instrumentation consisted of four thermocouples - two for each reactor, one on the reactor wall and the other on the cooling copper pipe, the hydraulic thermometer to 350 deg. household dosimeter "Terra-P" Eco-test company (Kyiv), dial gauges, high and low pressure balloon reducers, vacuum gauge and pressure gauge of low pressure up to 2 atm. As well as the usual volts and the ammeter, which recorded the electrical power consumption of the heating heaters? In the assembly we used two PETNs per reactor. The second heater was accidental, since heating elements do not tolerate working conditions thermally insulated convention without air and some time out of order. In this case, without dismantling the "dolls" to save time, electric power is supplied to the second (emergency) TEN.
The first launches have shown that without the participation of sorption / desorption of hydrogen overall efficiency of the heating system of the heaters has a level of 50%. This is due to heat loss through windows included in refractory bricks, the bricks themselves heat losses at the edges of the cooling copper pipes and hoses metalized means of heat, since on heating systems up to 500 degrees. From when the water inside the cooling circuit boil, steam passes distance buffer tank and heated taps and hoses up to 100-degrees that. (Without pumping water into the system). Knowing roughly the heat losses could continue to experiment and identify the common essence of the processes.
The first powder loaded into an experimental reactor was nickel. In the absence of a finished nickel powder we have acquired technical thick nickel plate and circular saw cutting by repeatedly raised the fine fraction. The weight of the loaded powder in the total volume of the reactor was 124 g. Since nickel in the hydrogenation increases its volume up to 30-40%, we reduced the weight of the loaded powder. Both ends of the reactor were adjusted stainless mesh to prevent the powder from spilling. We loaded 70 g and shaking tried to distribute the powder throughout the volume of stainless steel tube. After evacuation and pure hydrogen inlet (by heating the second reactor, which contained 30 g of titanium hydride), we have not detected the temperature rise during puffing hydrogen within the error. Multiple cycles of trial activation of nickel powder did not lead to any significant results. The saturation temperature of pure hydrogen was adjusted to 500 m deg C. at a pressure up to 3 atm. Also, the supply pressure from the cylinder to the technical hydrogen to 8 bars. Special effects were observed. Perhaps this is due to the fineness of the powder and / or impurities that were present in the original plate plus powder "drawdown" rapidne saw.
Pure titanium powder appeared much more informative. Full reactor contains 42 grams of titanium powder. He had less increase in hydrogenation than that of nickel, but still in order to avoid rupture of the reactor by increasing the volume, we loaded a total of 30 grams of powder. Note the property is used heaters. The power of PETN is 750 watt. Basically, workers were heating elements 380mm long. Temperature tarring air showed that the central part (about 100mm) warmed to 640 ° C, and then the edges of the temperature falls to 380 deg. C. This implies that the effective heating of the powder is subjected to 30 grams loaded, only one-third, i.e., about 10 grams.
After annealing, the titanium powder at a temperature of 500 degrees under vacuum (we used a compressor on the refrigerator, it keeps the vacuum on the pressure gauge to 0.9- minute bar. Cm. Photo) and periodic overlap of pure hydrogen from the secondary reactor to increase the rate of destruction of the oxide film, we have activated powder. Activation powder checked simply. The reactor is heated to room temperature and the pressure gauge we see an increase in pressure in the system at temperatures above 550 deg. C. At this temperature begins desorption of hydrogen from the titanium. After raising the pressure, in this case 5 atm. and disconnecting the voltage at TENs we see slowly over 20-30 minutes the pressure drop and temperature (That was without pumping cooling water). This process inertial compare the process of cooling the reactor over time in the presence of hydrogen under pressure in the system and without it, for detecting an excess heat is not properly or are difficult identical initial conditions. Further, conducting experiments, we varied overlap pure hydrogen and hydrogen technical or technological only pressurized to 8 atm. and a temperature of 300 to 600 deg. S. spent several variations on the initial temperature of the inlet. Before each overlap hydrogen, especially at temperatures above 300 deg. C system checked for leaks pressurized helium, because Hydrogen leaks from the system during the test, are associated with the safety of the working personnel in the event of an explosion. The need for the presence during the experiment, the person who is next to a fire extinguisher and emergency power breaker switch, is required!
With hydrogen puffing in the heated reactor (300-500degrees). There were no strong heating of the reactor, which initially discouraged. According to literature data, feeding of hydrogen is heated to a temperature of titanium powder, the temperature should raise up to 800 degrees. In this case, the applied pressure is slowly reduced and the obvious signs of sorption occurred. Slow pressure reduction could, of course, indicate the sorption and hydrogen leaked from the reactor could also occur at such high temperatures.
The entire process is changed after the start of pumping the cooling water. In the first cycle of heating the reactor, the water is present in the cooling copper pipe. After having reached the temperature inside the "dolls" above 100 degrees. With the water boils, the temperature rises from leaving the nozzle heard hissing and boiling steam output with portions of hot water. After this evaporation process ends is the rise in temperature to 550 degrees minute. C and the evolution of hydrogen, and raising the pressure to 6-8 atmospheres minute. (Above is not raised). Stop the pressure increase was performed to remove stress from PETN (this must be done in advance, because after removal of the stress of the thermal inertia of the pressure continues to grow about one minute). If at this stage the reactor was cooled, the pressure i.e. Sorption takes a long time, for 5-6 minutes. If you submit a portion of the water (is the unacceptably large number may result in a sharp hammer and thermal stresses of the walls of the reactor, which is fraught with the accident), our continental pump perfect for this purpose, the portion of the evaporated water quickly cools the reactor and immediately! A reduction in pressure from 8 to 0 atm., as indicated by the pressure gauge. At this point, with a delay of 1-2 sec the temperature rises very sharply from the original 200-300 degrees. The experiment was reproduced 6 times to identify the optimum temperature at which the best start to cool, and to what temperature to produce cooling. A priori, it was clear that if the system is to bring pressure from the outside, i.e., from the cylinder to 15-20 atm., the sharp rise in temperature may not stop at around 600 degrees. There is eventually all research - the volume, temperature, pressure.
Let us turn to the figures of our experiment.
The total internal volume of the reactor, the connecting tubes and diam.4mm length 2,9m, one pipe diameter. 6 mm and a length of 1 m -92.2 cm. Cube. In fact, slightly less volume of titanium powder in the filled reactor. You need to know how much hydrogen participated in the experiment. Here is the formula on which the finding. This is the "ideal gas equation of state," or the equation Mendeleev - Clapeyron.
P * V = n * R * T
p - Pressure in Pascal’s.
R = 8.314 universal gas constant.
T - The temperature in Kelvin.
V - Volume in cubic meters.
n - Amount of substance in moles.
Find the amount in moles by dividing the mass by the molar (2 g/mol) for hydrogen. Express the pressure in Pascal’s (multiply Map per million), and the temperature will translate to the Kelvin - let's add to the Celsius 273.2
Calculating this formula, we find (the calculation was carried out with 600 degrees and a pressure of 5 ATM.), what is involved in the process weight of hydrogen is only 0.012g, which corresponds 0,139 liters. In a separate test and actual measurement at room temperature the system pressure of 5 ATM., and released hydrogen in measuring the hydraulic lock, we received 0.6 liters of hydrogen, which according to the calculations had to give of 0.44 liters.
Here can make the error of coarse gauge dial in the exact pressure of 5 ATM.
In one of the experiments, the temperature after cooling jumped sharply to 880 deg. With that initial was 440 degrees the hydrogen pressure in the bustle of the experiment is not marked, but probably no higher than 8-10 ATM. and after the start of heat removal the temperature of the cooling water, the quantity of water was not considered, was a broken seal copper cooling tube.
Photo melt the silver solders and copper pipe penetration
The steam began to escape between the bricks and the gaps did not reach the cooling vessel. Heat was stopped at the same time is not possible, but the yield of standing coolant system (due to the melting of the silver solder and the "wasting" of holes in the copper pipe) discovered the possibility of experiments quenching reactor and detection conditions necessary for generating the anticipated additional heat. This is truly a blessing in disguise. In general, the work carried out after this became clear the mechanism of sorption / desorption of hydrogen titanium powder. As will be further seen from the description of the process and mechanism for obtaining additional heat we stumbled on an important point! The presence of a quench reactor to a sharp rise up the temperature. Many researchers of hydrogen absorption / deuteration nickel, palladium is not used with water cooling system (with the exception of Andrea Rossi, so it probably happened to get results). Yes, it is associated with certain difficulties, we had to engineer simple at first glance, to solve. If you take a cell Arata, a Japanese scientist, whose authority no one questions, and who received the helium in the reactor at deuterated palladium, the description can be seen that the saturation of palladium is produced at room temperature and pressure of deuterium to 30 atm., And there is a rise in temperature of the reactor from room temperature to 70-80 degrees. C. and is kept during the day.
Chelani Francesco from Italy also removes excess heat water, converting it to steam. All thermal measurements are conducted with the help of thermal imaging, which is associated with large error in calorimetric process what he pointed at the Seoul meeting, which was attended by J.N. Bazhutov, which is also engaged in nuclear detection processes by hydrogenation of nickel, not paying attention to heat removal by means of hydraulic parts.
After successful, in our opinion, experiments, and having an emergency reactor to be repaired, we decided to change the design of the reactor and a method of heat supply. Based on our earlier experiments, we noticed that the transmission of electrical current through the titanium hydride, hydrogen begins to stand out from the right hydride even at temperatures up to 70 degrees, then ohmic heating temperature quickly rises to 300-400 degrees. C. and further hydrogen desorption occurs. It is very important might have during cycling - sorption / desorption and generate additional heat. The less energy we will spend in the desorption process (it is endothermic); the more respectively obtain during the sorption heat (exothermic reaction). After further experiments with the powder in a quartz tube hydride and supply of AC 220 V across the tube current leads we observed sparks between hydride powder particles. In the pictures you can see the stages of the process.
To eliminate air from a fire in a quartz tube with hydrogen evolution, we first system was purged with helium, and then blocked the crane one end of the quartz tube and the other end by a flexible hose was placed in the cell with water. The process is accompanied by sparks rapid evolution of hydrogen. From this was born a constructive solution of the future reactor. These technological solutions have decided to assign a proper name - "TIGER". "Current Pulse Hydride Reactor.
In this scheme address the issue of heat removal from the entire area of the reactor, in which the metal powder. Current source in a sealed reactor, we decided to just technological method - used car spark plugs. As we used the high-dielectric ceramic tube. At the first trial broke ceramic thermal and mechanical loads and cracked surely this was due to the thermal expansion coefficient of ceramic dielectric material so the next chosen quartz glass, which has a coefficient of thermal expansion is minimal. The quartz tube with tube current leads and brass liner to the inner diameter of the reactor.
In general, such a constructive solution was justified since using the powder by heating heaters; we will inevitably have heat loss. In our case, all applying an electric energy is transferred directly hydride powder (powder or other test). In addition to all the other things we are by this process have the opportunity to supply an electric current of any frequency, voltage and waveform, which can be a very effective means for the desorption of hydrogen (except for thermal), and it remains to be clarified in future experiments. The first launches of "tigers" have been faced with difficulties in electrical contact with the current-supplying spark plugs inserts, thread sealing, the passage of current through the hydride to the nonlinearity of the current consumption, etc. In these geometric dimensions averaged power reactor was AC (50 Hz) voltage of 30 V, current 20-25 ampere. Experiments have shown that hydrogen evolution due to the passage of current (not due to an increase in temperature!) Occurs only at the first stage of the process. This is probably due, at this stage of the evolution of hydrogen occurs only alpha-hydride phases, i.e. removes hydrogen which is stored in the defects and micro cracks metal lattice. Further, hydrogen evolution probably is only due to ohmic heating in excess of 300-400 ° C and more. Temperature sensor we have placed on the outer wall of the reactor, near the cooling jacket and had no ability to directly measure the temperature of the hydride powder. Therefore, the inertia of the temperature readings introduces an error in the interpretation of the experiment and had to act intuitively, consistent with the visualization process in preliminary experiments with a transparent quartz tube. Another, in our view, an important phenomenon with which we are faced when dealing with the reactor "Tiger", a fast adsorption of hydrogen in hydride when disconnecting the electric current. Sorption occurs within 3-5 seconds at a pressure of 5-6 bars off. Without cooling the reactor. In the case of using the heating element, the thermal inertia (no cooling), after disconnection of electric heaters, does not quickly absorb hydrogen, which is stored in a pressurized system. A sharp rise in the temperature of the thermocouple on fixed since it mentioned above, the transfer rate from the temperature sensor to the hydride powder thermocouple difficult. The path that was heat pulse consisted of quartz glass wall of 2mm, the technological gap between the quartz surface and the brass insert 0.3-0.4 mm, the wall of the reactor nizkoteploprovodnoy stainless steel - 3mm, plus the distance to the sensor on the surface of the reactor in the direction 7-8 mm. Based on the research we can assume that the processes taking place in the reactor "Tiger" has a chance to be promising and opens up new physical phenomena in metal hydrides, and is to continue the research in this direction.
On energy process energy densities.
By reference data uptake of one mole (1 mol normally occupies 22.4 liters. Molar mass is equal to 2, the hydrogen density per 1 L is 2 g / l 22.4 = 0.09 g / l.) Of hydrogen Titanium powder is accompanied by the release of energy from 60-100 kJ. The spread of energy levels, probably due to the original terms of hydrogen absorption. We will adhere to in their calculations of average values - 80 kJ / mole. One can imagine the energy density of the process:
If every second titanium powder will be absorbed 22.4 liters of hydrogen per hour is absorbed 80,640 liters. This gives 3600 * 80 000 J = 288 mJ, which corresponds to a power of 288 / 3.6 = 80 kW / h. (1kW / h = 3.6 mJ). Acting cyclically one second sorption / desorption of one second, the power of the heat, with 22.4 liters of hydrogen cycling will 40kW / h.
One gram of titanium can absorb 0.4 liters of hydrogen. For absorption of 22.4 liters of hydrogen needed 56 grams of powder. I.e. Creating the necessary conditions for the sorption / desorption, is two seconds, we have the energy density - 56gramm / 40 kW / h is the theoretical maximum. The energy density of this process is very high. Imagine a 40-kilowatt heater that should a second transfer its power reactor volume (eg, our reactor with an internal diameter. 8mm and a length of 550mm, a volume - 27.6 cc., and the weight is in its powder - 30 gram) is difficult. In addition, the next second you need to remove the heat from this volume. Having left such a high energy density, it is clear that the practical realization of the unit will look like gangbusters in the mass and size characteristics.
On the basis of the experiments can begin to preliminary calculations and the design of the heating unit.
First, it is worth considering that the process of adsorption / desorption of one mole of hydrogen can go in the range of 8-10 seconds. To do this, for sure, the 56 grams of titanium powder is small, and nothing prevents the use of more -250-300 grams. (The price of one kilo of 10-12 dollars.). When stretching the time cycles, we reduce the energy density of up to design capacity and do not work in the critical range thermal stress.
Second, in advance, with a cycle of 8-10 seconds, with the size of our reactor, connecting them in parallel in a quantity of 10 pieces, which corresponds to the volume - 276 cm. Cub. We leave to the estimated minimum operating power of 10 kW / h without high thermal stress and possibility of a simple design of the cooling system.
About the additional heat in the process and the ratio of surplus energy.
The processes associated with hydrogenation metals are applied to the 70-ies in the industry. The key can be called - is getting metal hydrides for different branches of science and technology and the safe storage of hydrogen in batteries based on hydride of powders. The question of why using these processes, engineers and technicians have passed the phenomenon of additional heat generation? Following the law of conservation of energy, we see that as we get the heat when hydrogen sorption, the same amount of energy must be expended for the desorption process, and allegedly there is no gain in energy. The process of hydrogenation / deuteration palladium attracted many researchers and especially after 1989, when the announcement was made about the additional heat and explained this nuclear fusion reaction. We will not list a lot of work in this direction, and show the actual physical conditions for the emergence of the effect of additional energy.
Nuclear diagnostics showed that at the time of the thermal flash when hydrogen sorption to the metal, there is a flue gas neutron and gamma-ray pulse. Calculations showed that at six units of chemical energy in the sorption, there is one unit of nuclear energy. Visually, it is possible to imagine as if we six kilowatt Taine heated metal powder for hydrogen desorption and again would get the six kilowatts during sorption at TENs disabled, then the sorption we would have seven kilowatts. If the process of sorption / desorption will take one hour, the amount of additional energy ratio 7/6 = 1.16 i.e. Efficiency of the process will be 116%. If within an hour to make the process of sorption / desorption twice, then 8/6 = 1.33 and efficiency increases to 133%. If four times the efficiency - 166%. If the process of sorption / desorption lasts five minutes, an hour will take 12 cycles, in addition to six kilowatts we get 12 kilowatts of nuclear power, for a total of efficiency - 300%. This mechanism generate additional heat from nuclear power is precisely that necessary thermal / barotsiklirovanie and more frequently per unit of time we will be able to implement it, the higher the efficiency of the process.
This is a very important point to understand and that's why many researchers have passed such great possibilities of application of this process. Indeed, for example, during refueling hydride hydrogen storage, the hydrogenation metal sorption process takes from 10 to 30 minutes. From the above data it is evident that the sorption of 22.4 liters of hydrogen accompanied by energy release at 45 watts / hour. Assume that in hydride hydrogen storage injected 1 m. Cu. hydrogen for 30 minutes. Chemical separation in this case is 80 kJ / 22.4 liters and 3571 kJ / m. cu. This corresponds to 1 kW / h / 1 m. Cu. or 2kW / 30 min / 1 m. cu.
Overall, this design was justified, as using heating powder using Heaters, we inevitably have heat loss. In our case, all supplied with the electrical energy is transferred directly hydride powder (or another subject the powder). In addition to all we are using this method, you are able to input electric current of any frequency, voltage and pulse shape, which can be a very effective tool for hydrogen desorption (except thermal), and it remains to be investigate in future experiments.
The first launches of "Tiger" were difficult electrical contact of the spark plugs with wire inserts, sealing of threaded connections, the passage of current through the hydride, the nonlinearity of current consumption etc data dimensions power reactor was averaged by AC (50 Hz) voltage 30 Volts current 20-25 Amps. As shown in the experiment, the release of hydrogen due to the passage of current (not due to raise the temperature of!) only happens on the first stage of the process. This is probably due that at this stage there is a release of hydrogen only alpha-phase hydride, i.e., removes the hydrogen, which is defects and micro cracks of the crystal lattice of the metal. Further, the evolution of hydrogen is probably only due to ohmic heating in excess of 300-400 °C and further. Temperature sensor we placed on the outer wall of the reactor, near the cooling jacket and have not had a chance to directly measure the temperature of the hydride powder. Therefore, the inertia of the temperature readings have made an error in interpretation of the experiment and had to act intuitively, consistent with the visualization process in preliminary experiments with a transparent quartz tube. Another, in our opinion, an important phenomenon with which we are faced when working with the reactor "TIGER", is a fast sorption of hydrogen in the hydride when the electric current is switched off. Sorption occurred within 3-5 seconds when pressure of 5-6 ATM. without cooling of the reactor. In the case of using the heating element, the thermal inertia (without cooling) after you turn off the Heaters, not allows you to quickly adsorb the hydrogen that is in the system under pressure. The sharp rise of the temperature of thermocouple on fixed, as mentioned above, the transmission rate of the temperature of the hydride powder to the thermocouple sensor is difficult. The path was thermal pulse, consisted of a wall of the quartz glass 2mm, the technological gap between the quartz surface and the brass liner of 0.3-0.4 mm, the reactor wall from low-stainless steel - 3mm, plus the distance to the sensor on the reactor surface in the direction of 7-8 mm. On the basis of the conducted researches it is possible to assume that the processes occurring in the reactor TIGER have a chance to be a promising and opens new physical phenomena in metal hydrides and to continue research in this direction.
Currently, many researchers are nuclear processes, as described above, stop here, a slight additional warmth and calculate the amount of released energy during sorption. Now an important point of Cycling, which is by design difficulties of execution and is not used in their laboratory facilities or most likely do not attach or create conditions for frequent heat flashes, which correspond to phase transitions of the metal/metal hydride.
There is only one "gotcha". According to the literature, the metal powder can adsorb/be conducted in order to hydrogen to 5000 cycles. After that, the absorption capacity of the crystal lattice of the metal falls. Presumably, if the receiving efficiency of the process at the level of 400-600% is needed to produce 1 cycle per minute, that's about four days of operation when the mass of the powder 56 grams and generated maximum power of about 40 kW/h. 560 grams forty days , kilogram – 70 days, at a cost of one kilogram of 300-400 grew. rubles (referring to titanium), it looks quite satisfactorily at the level of market prices. But this is only a preliminary pessimistic calculations and according to some, when compaction and alloying titanium carbon, copper, additives cycles of sorption/desorption can reach up to 100 000.
Without going into a detailed description of the hydrogen plasma experiments, briefly we can say that in some cases we have seen a clear allocation of the excess thermal energy of the energy input to the discharge. In control experiments using, instead of titanium powder, brass powder under hydrogen atmosphere is no excess heat. The complexity of the electric power supply circuit and a sufficiently small discharge power from 3 watts to corona discharge and up to 400 watts for a glow discharge is not allowed to design a reactor with a high energy density.
After participating in the workshop "Cold fusion and fireball" in the People's Friendship University, Moscow, 25 December 2014. On which Parkhomov AG reported on the replication of the reactor Rossi, we decided to conduct its own similar experiment. We invited Parkhomov AG in our laboratory, and we had a very friendly and constructive meeting. We discuss the details of his experiment, and our understanding of the processes that occur within the ceramic reactor.
The main difference from our research experiments Parkhomov A. G. and Andrea Rossi that we use as a sorbent of metal - titanium. When the hydrogen absorption of titanium observed similar effects by excessive heat generation. When the supply of hydrogen under pressure in the reaction zone, at temperatures precluding sorption, there is a rise in the temperature of the titanium powder at 50º-70º C and this rise cannot be explained by the chemical nature of the reaction. Experiments in other laboratories, showed significantly if the hydrogen is replaced by deuterium, with all things being equal the Delta of the temperature rise twice. Nuclear diagnostics it shows a slight neutron flash and pulse of gamma radiation, which speaks once again about the non-chemical nature of this phenomenon. The priority in this field reactions of deuterium with titanium belongs to S. A. Tsvetkov (Russia) who 1997 applied and received the patent of Russian Federation № 2145123 "Method of nuclear fusion and the device for its implementation".
You should pay special attention to the fact that in excess in the reactor pressure up to 15 ATM. begin self-similar oscillations of temperature and pressure at a constant input power to the reactor. Reaction as it begins to "breathe" and maintain itself. The same self-similar 50-degree oscillations visible on the chart in experiment of A. G. Parkhomov when the temperature reaches 1300°C. To the reaction was in self-oscillating mode and not gone "off the rails", it is important to balance the input and exhaust capacity.
On the basis of the conducted research we can already start making and production of cost-effective electric boilers and heaters. Expected savings of this type of heating elements, in comparison with conventional heating elements, 3-4 times. The consumer of an electricity meter with billing day/night, will eliminate or significantly reduce the consumption of gas. In this case, the financial cost of heating the home, garden, office and industrial premises can be reduced by 6-7 times. The advantage (over ceramic at 1300ºC) the proposed fuel tubes in the fact that the working temperature is in the range 650°C-950°C., allowing them to be used in the production cycles, high temperature and currently used conventional heating elements. For example, in the forest/dryers, for heating poultry houses and poultry farms in the extruder for molding polymeric materials, various heat guns, etc. It is also possible to replace the gas burners in
domestic and industrial boilers and in-line installation of thermal tubes in the combustion chamber volume without alteration of the heat exchanger and all replace selection system. A large segment of the market includes the residents of country houses, cottages, owners of vegetable and flower greenhouses, where the construction of gas distribution networks is impractical or non-existent. Even with gas heating, where there is a monthly limit on the volume of gas, many people duplicate the heating electric boiler.
The proposed high-temperature fuel module (VTM) as follows. Stainless pipe, possibly covered with a thin ceramic layer, to provide insulation and oxidation from atmospheric air, with a diameter of 10-12mm and a length of 300-500mm. The tube is loaded with a powder or tablet titanium. Mass loading of 30 and 50 grams, respectively. The approximate time to replace the powder or tablets - 6 months. The fuel capacity of a single module length 300mm 1 to 2 kW. Length of 500mm from 3 to 4 kW. To achieve greater required capacity VTM gather in packs. The use of stainless steel tube (316L steel) and a pneumatic inlet valve Swagelok (Germany) or Hy-Lok (South Korea), will make the operation of heating elements are safe and durable. On shows the block diagram shows the Assembly of four VTM. Step-down transformer fed from 220 or 380 volts, lowers the voltage to 5 volts, and connect the low-voltage winding, with high-current terminals located at the ends of the stainless tubes. It is a reliable and easy way of heating, instead of using a nichrome heaters. The system is supplied buffer capacity high pressure volume to 1 liter, pressure sensors and temperature, and the unit of automation and control.
6. Current experiments
More promising for heating, in our opinion are thermal modules of low temperatures from 50°C to 120°C (NTMs).
The property of some intermetallic compounds such as LaNi5 and FeTi interact with hydrogen/deuterium at room temperatures, but at pressures above 20 ATM. In this case, there is no need to use electrical energy and the reaction starts immediately when the pressure of hydrogen in the tube. Ie in fact, we have an Autonomous source of heat. According to some laboratories, after the filing of deuterium under pressure up to 30 ATM. in the reactor zone where the low-temperature intermetallic PdZr in powder form, the wall temperature of the reactor rises from ambient to 80°C and kept for two days. It's safe to assume that it be the same with a much cheaper and affordable intermetallic compound - FeTi. We expected in our experiment the same self-oscillating process of rise and fall of temperature, as was observed in the case of high-temperature reactor. What will be the duration of this reaction, what is the period of self-oscillations and the possibility of a reaction to kesatuan - this will answer a direct experiment. Now manufactured multifunctional hydride hydrogen source of high pressure, which is connected to the pneumatic system. Quartz reactors are replaced by stainless steel high pressure reactors. In case of successful testing of an HTM fuel element will be much easier and functionally easier to fit in the heating system.
15 March 2015.
Lead Project Officer Hrischanovich Andrei Petrovich.
Experimental Laboratory, Moscow, Russian Federation
Laboratory of Experimental Physics "TET"